Laiklik-Şeriat Kıyaslamasıyla Toplumun ve Özgürlüğün Sınırları

individual rights

Laiklik-Şeriat Kıyaslamasıyla Toplumun ve Özgürlüğün Sınırları

  • 04.12.2023
  • 04:09:11

In today's world, social structures and forms of government are diversifying based on different philosophical and religious foundations. In this context, concepts such as secularism and sharia bring debates about the freedoms of society and individuals. The forms of governance and legal systems of societies are shaped under the influence of historical, cultural and religious factors. In this context, the concepts of sharia and secularism represent two main approaches to how law and governance are shaped in different societies. Sharia refers to a system of law and governance based on the basic religious principles of Islam, while secularism represents an understanding that is independent of religious beliefs, limits the relationship between religion and state and protects the freedoms of individuals.

Sharia is a legal system based on Islamic religious teachings. Religious norms and rules constitute the main source of law in this system. This brings with it an understanding of governance that shapes society's way of life according to religious principles. However, problems arise in the implementation of Sharia due to different interpretations and changing social conditions. It also poses challenges to equality and freedom for individuals of different faiths.

Laicism is a principle that advocates the separation of religion and state. This approach promotes freedom of religion for individuals and the peaceful coexistence of communities of different faiths. Secularism protects the neutrality of the state and the equality of all by making law and governance independent of religious values. In this way, the rights of individuals and communities of different faiths are respected, while ensuring that individuals remain in the private sphere of their religious beliefs.

Laicism is a principle that basically emphasizes that religion is a personal choice and that the state should serve all citizens equally and impartially. This principle aims to enable individuals of different religions and beliefs to participate in social life and realize their rights and freedoms without losing them. In this way, the state treats every citizen fairly, regardless of their religious beliefs, while individuals have the freedom to live their lives in accordance with their religious values. The principle of secularism is an important tool for preventing discrimination and religious oppression because it ensures that every individual has the right to live in accordance with his or her conscience and beliefs, while at the same time strengthening social cohesion and harmony.

The principle of secularism respects the fundamental rights of individuals to freedom and expression. This principle protects the right of every individual to live and express themselves in a manner consistent with their beliefs and convictions. Individuals can adopt lifestyles based on their religious, cultural or philosophical beliefs, express their thoughts openly and freely fulfill their worship. The coming together of individuals with different beliefs and systems of thought in society is an important reflection of diversity and richness. On the other hand, in sharia systems, individual rights and freedoms are determined and limited according to religious provisions. The effort of religious rules to determine the social order causes individuals to live their lives and expressions under certain rules and restrictions. Therefore, while the principle of secularism enables individuals to live and express their thoughts freely in line with their beliefs and values, sharia systems provide a framework in which these rights are subject to religious norms. Secularism protects individuals from religious pressures and restrictions, allowing them to enjoy their freedoms to the fullest extent. This principle ensures the peaceful coexistence of different segments of society and contributes to the intellectual and cultural development of individuals.

The principle of secularism facilitates individuals of different religions, languages, cultures and ethnic origins to live in peace and harmony within the same society. This principle recognizes the diversity within society as a richness and emphasizes that differences are part of coexistence. Separation of religion and state ensures that all individuals equally enjoy the rights provided by the state. Thus, no individual is discriminated against on religious or cultural grounds. A secular approach increases social cohesion and prevents potential conflicts. This is because the state does not grant special privileges to any religion or belief group. This minimizes the possibility of competition or tension between different religions. This enables all segments of society to live together more calmly and harmoniously. Furthermore, secularism enables individuals to live in accordance with their own beliefs and values, while at the same time learning to respect the rights and freedoms of those who are not like them. This increases social solidarity and tolerance. The principle of secularism makes it easier for individuals from different cultural and religious backgrounds to live together, while at the same time contributing to the preservation of social diversity and richness. This principle strengthens social cohesion, minimizes potential conflicts between different groups and promotes peaceful coexistence.

The principle of secularism creates an environment that encourages free thought by removing obstacles to scientific and technological development. Secular societies, operating independently of the dogmatic constraints of religion, allow individuals to think rationally and encourage innovative ideas. Secular societies create the necessary infrastructure to remove obstacles to progress in science and technology. This provides a fertile ground for free scientific research, discovery and innovation. In an environment free of religious restrictions, scientists and researchers can freely express their ideas, conduct experiments and develop new inventions. This contributes to the acceleration of scientific and technological development and social progress. Secular societies, as places where free thought is encouraged, provide a favorable environment for the development of science and technology. Scientific methods and reasoning offer a broader perspective as they are based on something other than religious doctrines. This allows different perspectives and approaches to come together to reach more robust and comprehensive scientific conclusions.

As a result, one of the fundamental elements that determine the order and functioning of societies is the legal and administrative system. While these systems are shaped by historical, cultural and religious influences, the concepts of sharia and secularism reflect two different approaches to these forms of governance. Sharia represents a system of law and governance based on religious principles, while secularism protects the freedoms of individuals by limiting the religion-state relationship. While both approaches have their advantages and challenges, in the modern world the principle of secularism has played an important role in promoting social diversity, freedom and scientific development. This principle forms the basis of social progress and development by enabling individuals with different beliefs, cultures and systems of thought to live together in harmony.